Diabetes is a multifactorial disease, characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Diabetic microvascular end points such as retinopathy, cardiomyopathy and nephropathy; and macrovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and strokes, causing premature death in diabetic populations. Despite strong familial clustering is associated with diabetes, the essential role of epigenetic component in the development of diabetes and its complications is inevitable. Several clinical trials and experimental animal studies show the persistence of diabetic vascular complications even after the normalization of glucose in diabetic patients, indicating the role of epigenetic or metabolic memory. Although previous researches on diabetes implicated the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic complications, lifestyle factors including diet and exercise and environmental factors are strongly associated in inducing epigenetic changes related to diabetic risk.
Gurusamy, N., Sukumaran, V., Alhazzani, A., Shatoor, A. S., Watanabe, K., & Shirai, M. (2015). Complications of diabetes: an unsolicited epigenetic memory. Diabesity, 1(1), 3–6. https://doi.org/10.15562/diabesity.2015.6